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Time Limit: 0.5 second(s) Memory Limit: 64 MB

Initially you are given an array of integers. Then you are asked q times what is the XOR of all the values in the given range.

Input

Input starts with an integer T (≤ 5), denoting the number of test cases.

Each case starts with a line containing an integer n (1 ≤ n ≤ 10^5) denoting the total number of integers on the next line. Next line contains n integers(1 ≤ i ≤ 10^5). Then there is an integer q(number of queries) (1 ≤ q ≤ 5 * 10^4) . Next q lines contain 2 integers u and v(1 ≤ u ≤ v ≤ n). For each query you have to print XOR of all integers between the range (inclusive).

Output

For each query print your answer in a line. See sample input/output for details.

Sample Input

Output for Sample Input

1

5

1526 5645 215 214 878

4

1 5

2 2

3 5

2 5

Case 1:

4244

5645

879

5474

 


Problem Setter: S. M. IJAZ-UL-AMIN CHOWDHURY
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