Server Time: Wed Feb 26, 2020 2:42 pm
 Welcome ( logout )
B - Come On Let’s Tree
 Time Limit: 0.5 second(s) Memory Limit: 64 MB

Initially you are given an array of integers. Then you are asked q times what is the XOR of all the values in the given range.

Input

Input starts with an integer T (≤ 5), denoting the number of test cases.

Each case starts with a line containing an integer n (1 ≤ n ≤ 10^5) denoting the total number of integers on the next line. Next line contains n integers(1 ≤ i ≤ 10^5). Then there is an integer q(number of queries) (1 ≤ q ≤ 5 * 10^4) . Next q lines contain 2 integers u and v(1 ≤ u ≤ v ≤ n). For each query you have to print XOR of all integers between the range (inclusive).

Output

For each query print your answer in a line. See sample input/output for details.

 Sample Input Output for Sample Input 1 5 1526 5645 215 214 878 4 1 5 2 2 3 5 2 5 Case 1: 4244 5645 879 5474

Problem Setter: S. M. IJAZ-UL-AMIN CHOWDHURY
 Developed and Maintained by JANE ALAM JAN Copyright © 2012 LightOJ, Jane Alam Jan